The Mission to Construct the Final Burger Bot

Weeks after he was born, Alex Vardakostas’ mom strapped him right into a child provider and went again to work flipping burgers at A’s, the Southern California fast-food restaurant that she and her husband owned. When Vardakostas was a toddler, the city’s native newspaper, Dana Level Information, ran {a photograph} of him peering by means of the restaurant’s walk-up window. As he grew older, he typically performed behind the kitchen amongst pallets of hamburger buns whereas his dad and mom labored. At 8, he began filling drink orders, standing on prime of a milk crate to achieve the soda machine. Generally he ran meals experiments, soaking burger meat in Worcestershire sauce to see if it could style higher. He discovered snippets of Spanish from the road cooks, Apolinar and Ernie, and at 12 he began working beside them.

Now 33, Vardakostas lives in San Francisco, and for the previous 9 years, he’s been constructing a robotic that may cook dinner and assemble round 100 burgers an hour—preserving tempo with a typical fast-food employees—with little human intervention. “Our device isn’t meant to make employees more efficient,” Vardakostas informed a reporter in 2012. “It’s meant to totally obviate them.”

That quote turned the entrepreneur right into a Silicon Valley caricature in a single day, a cautionary word in suppose items foretelling the robotic revolution, employee displacement be damned. (It didn’t assist that Vardakostas appears the a part of a dashing tech villain, with darkish, wavy hair and a muscular construct credited to weight lifting and a red-meat-heavy weight-reduction plan.) However six years on, he’s as adamant as ever. Sprawled on a sofa within the robotic workshop of his firm, Momentum Machines, he raises his voice over the whir of an industrial noticed. “I’m abso-fucking-lutely attempting to obviate that position,” he says, miming the flip of a burger, time and again, eyes fastened on the imaginary patty. “As a society, if we’re pushing to keep people in a burger-flipping role, we’re doing something wrong.”

Vardakostas insists he isn’t the heartless disruptor he’s been made out to be. His firm isn’t about destroying jobs, he says; it’s about shaping the way forward for quick meals—one through which people will nonetheless have an necessary place. His skeptics will quickly have the ability to see that imaginative and prescient for themselves: This summer season, he’s opening the doorways to a San Francisco restaurant known as Creator and unveiling his gleaming burger bot—a surprisingly lovely copper and wooden machine, its spotless glass chutes stacked with vivid towers of tomato, onion, lettuce, and pickle.

Simply off Freeway 1 within the browsing city of Dana Level, Vardakostas’ mother, Maheen, nonetheless works seven days per week. The slight 66-year-old stands over the A’s grill wielding a spatula, a hairnet stretched over her darkish bun and a pink apron round her waist, ready for her son to place her out of a job.

Alex and his dad and mom at Burger Cease in 1985 in San Clemente.

Courtesy of the Vardakostas household

Angelo Vardakostas sailed into Los Angeles on a Greek industrial ship in 1955. Greeks have been opening diners throughout the nation on the time—mom-and-pop analogs to the McDonald’s, Carl’s Jr., and Kentucky Fried Hen chains that have been multiplying within the postwar sprawl—and Angelo hopped off on the port and began searching for a job. He labored as a dishwasher and bartender at a string of eating places, finally snagging a place ready tables at a flowery Beverly Hills bistro. (As soon as he was despatched to a desk with the components for Caesar salad dressing, meant to be combined tableside; not realizing any higher, he poured the uncooked egg instantly into the salad.) By the early 1970s, Angelo had saved sufficient to make a down fee on a joint known as Archie’s BBQ within the fast-food hub of Downey, California, a couple of miles away from the unique Taco Bell. He rechristened Archie’s as A’s. Figuring he may lower your expenses, he later informed his son, he saved the identical signal and pried off the opposite letters.

After a couple of years, Angelo decamped and opened one other A’s location 50 miles south, in beachy Dana Level. In 1979, a pair of twenty­one thing sisters noticed a “help wanted” signal within the window. They’d just lately arrived from Iran, having fled the Islamic Revolution, and Angelo employed them on the spot.

The elder sister, Maheen, had received a nationwide math championship when she was 17 and had graduated with a grasp’s diploma from the College of Tehran. Earlier than leaving the nation, she labored as a civil engineer for the Iranian Air Drive. “I was so depressed when I got here,” she remembers. “My career was gone.” However the 27-year-old utilized her methodical nature to her new duties at A’s, taking stock and dealing with massive orders through the lunch rush. Whereas Maheen was brooding and detail-­oriented, Angelo was easygoing. She discovered him charming. “He always brought humor,” she says. The couple married in 1982. “We didn’t have time to date,” Maheen says, with amusing. Alex was born in 1984, and two years later the household opened one other A’s outpost in San Juan Capistrano, 20 minutes from Dana Level. A 12 months later, Alex’s brother, George, was born.

Enterprise picked up within the new location, and when Vardakostas was in grade college the household moved right into a sprawling ranch home in San Juan Capistrano, the place they added a tiled pool within the again. Vardakostas began working the grill, sneaking free meals to pals from his non-public center college between shifts. A number of the youngsters took to calling him Varda-Cheeseburger, a taunting twist on his final identify. “My parents would come to the school dirty from work,” Vardakostas says. “I had a chip on my shoulder.” He bought in a couple of fistfights, however by no means dared to inform his dad and mom.

When Vardakostas reached highschool, he says, his father began taking the boys on weekly journeys to the native bookstore. “We’d drink frappuccinos,” George remembers, “and everyone would pick their own book.” Whereas Angelo flipped by means of The Wall Avenue Journal, Vardakostas paged by means of books on science and physics. After graduating from Capistrano Valley Excessive College with middling grades, Vardakostas headed to close by Saddleback School. He washed and detailed automobiles to make extra cash, consuming totally free twice a day at A’s. In 2006, Vardakostas transferred to UC Santa Barbara to check physics. A classmate and buddy, Steffanie Hughes, remembers him as a preppy child, usually clad in a pink polo and Jack Purcells. She was impressed by his intelligence and intrigued by his uncommon residing association. For his first few months in Santa Barbara, Vardakostas was staying at a Motel 6. He would spend hours finding out within the driver’s seat of his used Mercedes—a present from his dad when he transferred to UCSB—which he appreciated to park on the seashore. Although he liked his lessons on quantum mechanics and electromagnetics, he says, his ideas would typically return to his dad and mom and their longtime staff passing years within the A’s kitchen, cooking burger after burger. An thought got here to him his junior 12 months, as he lay awake at Four am in a bout of insomnia: “What if I could create a robotic kitchen?” The concept excited him. “Once you have a vision about how things could be better, it grows like a weed,” he says. A few weeks earlier than commencement, he informed Hughes about his burger bot scheme. Her response was one he’d hear repeatedly within the ensuing decade. “You’re going to displace workers,” she informed him.

After graduating in 2007, Vardakostas bought a job automating information at a semiconductor firm. Nonetheless, he says, he was fixated on the thought of a burger bot. “I was thinking, why the hell isn’t anybody doing this?” He put in design software program on his laptop computer and began finding out robotics after work. Inside two years, he stop his job and commenced constructing crude burger-making robotic prototypes in his dad and mom’ storage. First up: the tomato slicer, pieced collectively for $25 utilizing an Allen key set, PVC piping, and a few balsa wooden he purchased at House Depot.

Maheen urged him to get out of the burger enterprise. His brother was baffled by his storage tinkering. “I mean, why don’t you want a sexier job? Make the next iPhone,” George informed him. One night time, a man overheard Vardakostas speaking about his burger bot at an Orange County bar and blurted out, “If my kid did that, I would shoot him.” Vardakostas stopped telling folks about his plan.

Momentum Machines CEO Alex Vardakostas samples robot-made burgers at Creator, his San Francisco restaurant.

Brian Finke

By 2010, Vardakostas’ robotic was beginning to present promise, however he knew he’d want heavy equipment to construct a working prototype. He joined TechShop, a DIY makerspace in Menlo Park, and couch-crashed with Hughes, who had landed a job at Apple and was residing in San Jose. Intimidated by the CNC instruments, he launched himself to a twentysomething man in work boots he’d seen expertly working the milling machine. The man, Steven Frehn, was a mechanical engineer and up to date Stanford grad—“one of these genius kids,” Vardakostas thought. Frehn grew up in a dusty stretch of Southern California making sketches of electrical automobiles and cities topped with photo voltaic panels. In highschool, he landed an internship working for NASA, automating sensors at an Air Drive base. Now he was constructing his personal photo voltaic panels and sweeping TechShop’s flooring in trade totally free use of the tools. When Frehn requested what he was engaged on, Vardakostas was cagey. “A machine to cut vegetables,” he replied.

The 2 struck up an unlikely friendship. Vardakostas is charismatic and inventive, Hughes says, whereas Frehn is grounded and sensible. Finally, Vardakostas revealed his idea for the burger bot. “I immediately thought it was amazing,” Frehn says, “but it sounded like a lot of work.”

Vardakostas returned to his machine—and his dad and mom’ storage—in Orange County. When he didn’t need to make the six-hour drive to San Jose, he would sometimes ship Frehn robotic elements through same-day supply for fast alterations; Frehn would use TechShop’s instruments and rush-mail the half again. After about seven months, Vardakostas’ makeshift vegetable slicer was purposeful.

Brian Finke

Inspired, Vardakostas moved on to constructing the conveyor belt that might transfer the burger down an automatic meeting line, the bun slicer and toaster, and the electrical grill. Within the fall of 2011, after two years, a burger emerged from his machine. The robotic was viable.

Now Vardakostas wanted cash. Hughes organized a gathering with Lemnos Labs, one in every of Silicon Valley’s first {hardware} incubators, and in November of 2011, two Lemnos companions flew to the Vardakostas house in San Juan Capistrano to go to the entrepreneur-in-waiting. Vardakostas delivered his pitch in his childhood bed room; Lemnos companion Helen Boniske remembers that physics books have been strewn on the ground.

Then he led the companions to his dad and mom’ three-car storage, now dominated by a 6-foot-tall burger beast. Vardakostas clicked Place Order on his laptop computer, and the machine sprang into motion. A presliced bun ran by means of a toaster on a squeaky conveyor belt. The underside half slid down a chute beneath the vegetable slicers, the place robotic blades lower pickles, tomatoes, and onions. The patty traveled by means of a charbroiler on a separate conveyor belt, then glided down a chute onto the underside bun. The highest bun dropped onto the sandwich and a mechanical arm pushed your entire burger right into a white paper bag. “For one dude to build this thing in a garage,” Boniske says, “it was an incredible feat of engineering.” Lemnos provided Vardakostas about $50,000 in seed cash and invited him to affix their ranks.

Two months later, Vardakostas moved to San Francisco and arrange his workshop in Lemnos’ SoMa district headquarters. He posted an advert on Craigslist in search of machining engineers and employed two latest school grads: Jack McDonald, a mechanical engineer from UC Berkeley, and Lucas Lincoln, a roboticist from the College of Utah. Frehn quickly joined the group full-time.

The foursome set to work constructing a brand new, improved burger bot prototype, generally pulling days so lengthy, Vardakostas says, that he slept in a sleeping bag underneath his desk. However as a result of he wasn’t seeking to promote his machine to fast-food chains, enterprise capital companies have been cautious of investing. By now, Vardakostas had change into satisfied that his firm may remodel not solely the repetitive act of burger making but additionally your entire fast-food enterprise mannequin, from the components used to the wage construction. His dream, he says, is to open a series of Creator eating places throughout the nation, delivering high-quality, cheap meals to the lots. “It was right on the edge, man,” McDonald remembers. “We believed in the idea, but it’s a lot harder to convince other people that it’s the future.” To stretch their seed cash, they typically ate their machine’s personal imperfect trial-run burgers for lunch.

In the future that fall, Avidan Ross, a roboticist turned enterprise capitalist, visited Lemnos Labs and noticed the burger bot throughout the room. “I said ‘What is that?!’ ” he remembers. “I have to meet these people.” Whereas different traders on the time have been “caught up in iPhone apps, trying to find the next Snapchat,” he says, his newly launched VC agency, now known as Root Ventures, was centered on {hardware}. In a stroke of luck for Vardakostas, Ross was a kindred tinkerer: He had constructed his personal pizza oven and several other barbecue contraptions in his yard, one in every of which tweeted its temperature each 5 minutes. Ross had additionally given numerous thought to how robotics may be used to automate pricey cooking strategies. Early in 2013, he wrote Momentum Machines a verify for about $300,000. Google Ventures and Khosla Ventures quickly adopted.

Momentum Machines isn’t the primary to aim to automate restaurant kitchens. Within the 1960s, the American Machine & Foundry Firm unveiled a fast-food gadget that churned out burgers, scorching canine, fries, and milkshakes at a Lengthy Island drive-in. An attendant punched within the orders on a push-button dashboard that managed the equipment. Although the contraption saved roughly $1,900 in cook dinner’s wages every month, it additionally value $1,500 to lease. It by no means caught on. Extra just lately, fast-food chains have been taking small steps towards automation, particularly in ordering, but additionally within the extra difficult course of of creating meals. McDonald’s has been putting in self-service kiosks as a part of its “Experience of the Future” marketing campaign. Chains from Taco Bell to Burger King have adopted ordering apps. This spring, Little Caesars obtained a patent for a pizza-making robotic. Over the previous two years, Miso Robotics in Pasadena, California, has been growing Flippy, a burger-flipping robotic arm that works with most eating places’ preexisting grills. Flippy was slated to be deployed at CaliBurger eating places across the nation this 12 months, however its March debut was inauspicious: After a few hours on the chain’s Pasadena location, it fell behind on orders and was decommissioned for enhancements.

The technical complexities, coupled with the price of constructing a kitchen bot, imply that it’s going to take time earlier than robotics transforms the fast-food trade. Nonetheless, chains proceed to pursue automation as a result of they suppose it would increase their income; labor prices usually make up round 30 p.c of restaurant bills. “The fact of the matter is businesses will automate when it’s cost-effective,” says Teofilo Reyes, a coverage knowledgeable at Restaurant Alternatives United, a nonprofit that advocates higher circumstances for fast-food staff. Changing a number of salaries with the one-time value of a robotic is an attractive enterprise technique, particularly in an trade with a excessive turnover charge. Martin Ford, writer of Rise of the Robots: Know-how and the Risk of a Jobless Future, predicts that inside the subsequent 5 to 10 years, main fast-food chains will have the ability to cut back employees by 30 to 40 p.c as a result of automation.

The affect of such cuts on general employment charges is unknown, says Sylvia Allegretto, a labor economist at UC Berkeley. “The big mistake everyone makes is they can’t foresee the new jobs that will come online because of the technology,” she argues. The automotive might have put blacksmiths out of enterprise, but it surely additionally created assembly-line jobs. In fact, automation in manufacturing has now put assembly-line staff in danger. They’re being changed by robots, overseen by a small group of people with the experience to handle them.

The best way to Work a Burger Bot

1. Ordering
Diners customise their meals by means of Creator’s app, which sends the knowledge to the bot.

2. Toasted bun
Air strain pushes the brioche bun by means of a blade that slices it in half. It travels down a vertical toaster earlier than dropping right into a compostable container.

3. Produce
The bun strikes on a conveyor belt under chutes of tomatoes, onions, pickles, and shredded lettuce. The robotic cleaves a recent portion from every of the greens.

4. Beef
Hunks of brisket and chuck are tumbled with seasonings in a vacuum chamber. The bot grinds and shapes 5 ounces of meat right into a puck, then a mechanized arm deposits the patty between two griddles.

5. Grill
The patty is cooked at 350 levels till medium uncommon. When it’s performed, a mechanized spatula locations the patty onto the open bun.

6. Condiments
Convection warmth melts shredded cheese. Requested sauces and seasonings—together with coffee-flavored salt, chipotle powder, and curry ketchup—are deposited from numerous dispensers.

7. High quality management
The burger emerges from the robotic, the place it’s checked by a human employee. —L.S.

Vardakostas received’t share his monetary projections, however his enterprise mannequin makes some formidable assumptions in its path to success. He says that the robotic will finally make burgers extra effectively than a typical fast-food restaurant, although at its present charge—about 100 burgers per machine, per hour—a McDonald’s-­model restaurant may sustain. App-based ordering signifies that Creator will have the ability to serve extra prospects, quicker. The restaurant may additionally shore up its backside line by serving beer, wine, and fries, gadgets with a excessive revenue margin. Vardakostas says he plans to spend round 45 p.c of his income on burger components, which embody pasture-raised beef and natural greens. Most eating places spend roughly half that on complete meals prices.

To Erik Brynjolfsson, coauthor of The Second Machine Age, it is sensible that Momentum Machines is opening its personal restaurant somewhat than buying its bot round to present chains. “You can’t just pop the robot into a restaurant and leave the whole rest of the business the same,” he says. “You have to reinvent the roles of the people, the types of ingredients, your price points. Replacing a human burger-flipper with a machine isn’t the big payoff—the payoff is inventing a totally new kind of restaurant.”

Whereas robots will function Creator’s cooks and cashless cashiers, they received’t be with out human assist. This spring, Momentum Machines employed its first restaurant staff, together with a basic supervisor, a number to clarify how the smartphone ordering course of works, and “burger buffs” skilled to keep up the machine and ship meals to tables. As much as 9 staff will work throughout Creator’s peak hours—on par with a regular fast-food restaurant—and Vardakostas says he’ll pay them $16 an hour, $1 above San Francisco’s minimal wage.

All this raises the query: Can Creator really generate profits, or will it change into one other over­hyped gimmick propped up by VC funding? “It’s to be determined,” says Aaron Noveshen, founding father of the restaurant consultancy the Culinary Edge and an early Momentum Machines adviser. “If it doesn’t take five people to stand next to the robot to make it work, then they can reach profitability.” Helen Boniske believes Alex may cost greater than his proposed value of $6 to $7 per burger, with a watch to Creator’s eventual growth.

Whereas Creator is a contained testing floor, for now, the thought of robotic kitchens catching on all through the restaurant trade is unsettling to many. “For some reason, with our burger bot, people have a visceral reaction: This machine is doing exactly what you see a human doing,” acknowledges McDonald, one in every of Momentum’s authentic engineers. There’s something particularly troubling about fast-food staff being tossed apart—maybe as a result of these jobs are considered as a spot for individuals who have restricted choices. The median revenue for a fast-food employee is round $21,000, and greater than half obtain some public help. “The reality is that many people who work in fast food may be well suited for routine jobs,” Ford says.

Alex balks at such sentiments. He sees burger flippers as trapped by their jobs, not clinging to them. “You don’t grow up next to fast-food workers without realizing these people are capable of so much more—it becomes this sort of haunting thing,” he says. “People say, oh, flipping burgers is the only thing they can do. That’s fucking bigoted. Dude, no, we can do a lot more than flip burgers. We just haven’t had a chance.”

For a line cook dinner who simply misplaced his job, although, Vardakostas’ imaginative and prescient might provide little comfort.

Momentum Machines engineers obtain real-time obstruction alerts from the burger bot throughout testing.


Vardakostas masses stacks of pickles, tomatoes, and onions into his machine. Every topping is sliced to order.


At Creator in San Francisco, Vardakostas walks over to examine his machine’s newest burger. For the previous 12 months, the restaurant’s unfinished eating space has been his second workplace, his 50 staff gliding between the 2 buildings on scooters and skateboards. In the meanwhile, the restaurant home windows are frosted over to thwart oglers, and the uncommon customer is required to signal a nondisclosure settlement and canopy their cellphone’s digital camera lens with a sticker. It’s mid-April, and the workforce is customizing burger orders from Creator’s smartphone app for the primary time, requesting additional cheese or chipotle powder as an alternative of jalapeño salt. Half a dozen builders and software program engineers are seated on the eating tables with their laptops, obsessively monitoring the real-time progress of the 2 similar robots throughout the room.

Amid the bustle of equipment, ending touches are being put in place to make the area really feel extra like a homey café than, say, a dystopian manufacturing unit. One wall is painted with yellow Fibonacci spirals. Burger components chill in glass-front fridges alongside meticulously written explanations of their provenance. Clients shall be invited to browse books whereas they wait for his or her orders, from design tomes to Eric Schlosser’s Quick Meals Nation.

After practically a decade of R&D, Vardakostas says, “we had our pick” of VC companies throughout final 12 months’s fund-raising spherical. He just lately obtained investments from Root Ventures, Zynga cofounder Justin Waldron, Nice Oaks Enterprise Capital in New York, and K5 Ventures in Orange County. Based on its 2017 SEC filings, Momentum Machines raised $18.Four million in funds.

Regardless of his insistence that he’s not promoting his robotic, Vardakostas claims his firm has heard from fast-food chains and sports activities stadiums which can be serious about buying it. “We were able to get them an introduction to Burger King really early on,” Boniske says. “It was just too early to have a substantial discussion. Burger King’s reps said ‘I don’t believe it’s possible.’ ” It’s laborious to know if Vardakostas will promote in the long run, but it surely’s straightforward to think about. Possibly Creator’s opening shall be an inflection level, just like the day in 1948 when two McDonald brothers determined to make their prospects stroll as much as the counter to gather their burgers, somewhat than hiring servers to ship them to automobiles. Possibly nothing a lot will change in any respect.

In Dana Level, Maheen says she awaits the day she will set up one in every of her son’s burger robots at A’s. She says she sees his machines as the subsequent chapter of their household’s American success story, payoff for all these years she and her husband spent within the kitchen. “You know who wants to lose their jobs?” Maheen asks wryly, slouched in a sales space at A’s throughout a weekend lull. “It’s the managers.” As soon as her son’s long-­promised burger bot arrives, she says, she might even think about retiring.

Lauren Smiley (@lauren smiley) wrote about digital elder care in difficulty 26.01.

This text seems within the July difficulty. Subscribe now.

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